Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Photoshop Class: Abstract Response/Gestalt - Esmeralda

Picking most striking and energetic thumbnails from all of four PS files, and experimenting with layering techniques - playing with dissolve, hue, saturation, luminosity, darkness, etc. Stretching squares horizontally, vertically and in more complex ways manually [distorting dimensions and seeing perspective opportunities], before using Magic Wand tool to carve out any shapes spilling out of each of four squares:
Really enjoyed creating overall distorting yet exciting and energetic environment through stretching and playing with colour; capturing spirit of Esmeralda's streaming water canals and probable surrounding sunny beach/exotic environment. Need to use such technique more often in thumbnail exercises [up to first 100 for OGR!]

Monday, 28 September 2015

Photoshop Class: Abstract Response/Gestalt - Esmeralda

Discovering another way in developing energetic and striking concept art, through idea of simplification - Gestalt: "The whole (picture/car) carries different and altogether greater meaning than its individual components (paint/canvas/brush, or tire/paint/metal)." After discovering concept art examples from architects today [Atelier Olschinsky, Zaha Hadid, Mary Blair, etc.], recently realised that I have been probably focusing slightly too much on interiors and components making up architecture in my Calvino-Invisible Cities sketchbook and digital thumbnails, and not enough on striking building shape itself - e.g. seashells, expo pavilions, staircases and pathways, etc. [need to balance between the two properly].

Abstract 1

Adapting from phrase-writing exercise, using Photoshop and various brushes to draw quick and energetic colour-shape formations reflecting the kind of themes I want to further enhance in later sketches. Making sure to colour-fill in negative space, and not to draw obvious narrative scenes - instead, capturing movement of blue waves, slides and chutes, and surrounding bricked and cobblestone walls [influence from simplified Mary Blair], gathering together suggested theme of Esmeralda. Later realising great power of pictogram-style creations within tight squares - e.g. Otl Aicher [Munich 1972].

 Abstract 2, 3 & 4

Ongoing capturing spirit [keyword] of splashing waves, sliding chutes with lampposts, sun rays, flower petals and plants, and surrounding beach-like environments [blue squiggles, zig-zag sun rays, curling circles, etc.]. Really enjoying bright, multi-colour approach [leading influence from Hundertwasser], drawing out quickly and energetically, so that I am able to further progress chosen colours and shapes. Therefore, probably just as influential drawing thumbnail exercises as plainly visualising buildings and surrounding scenery - remember: you're mainly shading colours, not drawing lines first.
New PS tools introduced in Abstract 4 - lasso tool and polygon lasso tool, creating effective contrasts in sharpness and solidity. At one point, accidentally drawing too confusing polygon lasso [Abstract 4, bottom-left], yet leading to quite successful perspective of ideal boat/log flume crashing into sea [adding lighter blue splashes and colourful plants in foreground]. Other squares created in Abstract 4 already reminds me of ideas - e.g. postmodern graphic design, design for sporting outfits and gyms, Javier Mariscal, tribal patterns, etc.

Photoshop Class: Word Stacks (Ideation) - Esmeralda

Writing exercise - Small sketchbook:

Suggested exercise from artist-illustrator Sterling-Hundley, in order never to come up with most obvious and common concepts from analysing texts, concepts, etc. - similar exercise to continuing writing without letting go on paper, letting all your ideas no matter how relevant straight onto surface (be honest and display them!):
Re-analysing Esmeralda text from Calvino's Invisible Cities and picking key phrases in order to start throwing down phrases to conjure up new ideas to develop into future thumbnail sketches, often adding reminders of previous encounters [artworks, films, architecture, etc.]. Even going so far into throwing down my past dreams [REM] - e.g. new modern steel railway station with 13 platforms in middle of wheat field in Kazakhstan. Most importantly, trying to be as exaggerated as possible, and not necessarily having to link to real-life examples in the past.

Photoshop Class: Master Study Warm-Up

Old Masters:
  • Joseph Wright - 1734-97, UK
  • Frederic Edwin Church -1826-1900, USA
  • William Stanley Haseltine - 1835-1900, USA
Studying paintings and other wall artworks from Old Masters [pre-1800/Europe], analysing colour, shape, contrast, tone and composition carefully. Recommended by tutor as most efficient way to warm up digital painting each time before starting:
Layering negative space first [e.g. sky], before adding background, then foreground. Continuing to use eye drop tool to mimic colours from original paintings, whilst continuing to be aware of pressure of brush and composition. 'Seeing forest for trees' by often zooming out to see where my outcome is going [simple shaded blobs, before finer detail], recognizing always more complex colours in materials and objects than simple assumption - e.g. purple rocks, brown sea and teal cliff. Also often confirming proper tonal range match by layering in black-and-white, looking at correct contrast, etc.
Noticed in particular that I accidently continued to brushstroke in particular zig-zag direction for second-to-bottom painting [Iceberg], therefore blurry composition up close, but colour locations start to bind together once seen from far distance. Really enjoyed exercise that I should try such exercises with searched paintings from museum and gallery websites - National Gallery, Tate Britain, etc.

Sunday, 27 September 2015

Photoshop Exercises - Still Life Apples

Still life colouring exercise with apples: recognizing colours in negative space as well as apples themselves, and discovering more detailed colours rather than just cherry red [black, grey, beige, pink, violet, yellow, etc.] Slightly more difficult than black-and-white exercise because of this, but became really interested in trying to mimic colour distribution, discovering new shapes inside objects [e.g. pink ring around far-left apple].
Continuing using eye-drop tool to mimic colours exactly from original photograph, but still helping me realize chiaroscuro and colour contrast. Main idea again being loosest shades first, and then gradually building up. Really looking forward to using these techniques on bigger projects!

Photoshop Exercises - Still Life Pears

Introduction to Photoshop features and Wacom digital drawing tablets, adapting from still life photographs in black-and-white and colour - focusing on paintbrush techniques [various sizes, tones and water levels]:
The main outcome I have discovered from this exercise is ideally not to draw the outlines first, but paint the shades very loosely and gradually build up [inspiration from Pixar concept art books, mimicking loose chalk pastel sketches], then giving the 3D illusion [adding outline will already make object look flat]. One key feature I have been shown [though generally seen as quite cheating], is using eye drop tool onto original photograph to easily mimic exact colours, speeding up colouring process [really helped me build up tightest areas of both darkest and brightest, especially the gaps between the pears].
Other than that, I really enjoyed looking deeper and reconstructing even the most ordinary of still life objects such as fruit - forgetting what they are and simply seeing them as alien life forms [will probably never see still life objects the same way again].

Profiles - Autodesk Maya

Autodesk, San Francisco:

Stock exchange – NASDAQ, New York
Industry – Computer software
Founder – John Walker
Website – www.autodesk.com

Autodesk is an American multinational software corporation that makes software for the architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, media, and entertainment industries.
The company was founded in 1982 by John Walker, a co-author of the first versions of Auto-CAD, the company's flagship computer-aided design (CAD) software. Its Auto-CAD and Revit software is primarily used by architects, engineers, and structural designers to design, draft, and model buildings and other structures. Autodesk became best known for AutoCAD but now develops a broad range of software for design, engineering, and entertainment as well as a line of software for consumers. Autodesk's Media and Entertainment division creates software for visual effects, colour grading, and editing as well as animated film, game development, and design visualization. Maya is a 3D animation software used in film visual effects and game development.


Developer – Autodesk, San Francisco
Initial release – 1998
Type – 3D computer graphics
Website – www.autodesk.com/maya

Maya is a 3D computer graphics software that runs on Windows, OS X and Linux, originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation [Toronto] and currently owned and developed by Autodesk [San Francisco]. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, or visual effects.


Invisible Cities: Influence Map

Here are my inspirations that were crammed inside my brain at the time I was continuing developing the Invisible Cities thumbnails, though I am really eager to seek other ideas and opportunities through analysing more of Calvino's texts and exploring concept artists in the books featured in the project brief. The main themes behind my vision are bright, harmonious colours and textures, child-like characters and environments, and simplified and /or energetic shapes and movements.
World expos really are more inspirational to me than anything else in the world right now, ever since I discovered the build-up to the Shanghai Expo back in 2009 - it was like discovering blown up children's playgrounds and toy boxes that looked like the ultimate escape, to discover new ideas and bind with other people in friendly and peaceful ways. I even think architecture like world expos drives characters and storytelling [by its colours, shapes, textures, pathways, etc.], how different formations can depict different adventures one can encounter. When I listen to music from artists such as Moby, Radiohead and Genesis, I can imagine lands and storyboards from each track I listen to - e.g. ambient music, experimental music, concept albums, musicals, etc.

Textures & Colours - Sweets, Sunflower Field, Toy Box, Forest, Topical Beach & Palm Trees, Cobblestones, Wall Paint
Architecture - Lisbon [Portugal] 1998, Seville [Spain] 1992, Hannover [Germany] 2000, Brazil Favelas, London 2012 Opening Ceremony, Hundertwasser [Austria], Sanrio Puroland [Tokyo], Shanghai [China] 2010, Hersheypark [Pennsylvania, USA]
Illustrators - Super Bust a Move [Taito, Tokyo], Journey [That Game Company, Los Angeles], Super Mario Sunshine [Nintendo, Tokyo], The Amazing World of Gumball [Boulder, Dublin], Javier Mariscal [Spain], Otl Aicher [Germany]
Albums - Play [Moby, USA, 1999], Kid A [Radiohead, UK, 2000], Selling England by the Pound [Genesis, UK, 1973]

Friday, 25 September 2015

Invisible Cities: Thumbnails 13-22

First time sketching thumbnails from Photoshop [Adobe] and Wacom drawing tablet. Want to manage time properly so carefully balancing between brush experimenting and thumbnail drawing - exciting to discover variations in size, tone and water for different brushes:

Diomira [13-14] - At first glance of description, personally visualising "theatre land" [e.g. facade to Royal Opera House, London] surrounded by narrow terraced buildings, sight towers, bird statues and market stalls. Really liked outcome of pens and brushes I was using and how much pressure and quantity I was using - quite French Impressionist outcome, which could be seen as perfect for concept art drawing. Outcome also reminded me of other locations and ideas - Venice street buildings, Hollywood studio backlot buildings, and regenerated waterfronts (e.g. Lisbon Expo Park).

Links - Venice street, Warner Bros. Backlot [Los Angeles], Lisbon Expo Park [1998], Royal Opera House [London]

Ersilia [15-17] - Excited to develop concept which, at first glance, quickly resembling houses and villages found in countries like Nepal - rocky rubble, derelict housing, rising mountains in background, bright poles for supporting ropes and strings, even drawing hanging lanterns or lightbulbs as sign of direction into next location [17]. Experimenting with larger brush sizes with softer touch, creating believable smokey atmosphere inside one of abandoned houses [16].


Links - Himalayas [China/Nepal], Nepal town, hanging lanterns

Esmerelda [18-20] - Another exciting concept to explore, and was aiming to draw out dynamic angles featuring canal intersection, and interaction with surrounding buildings at varying heights, plus featuring city's cats about to jump off to different roofs. By No. 20, really wanted to stop drawing lines to realise shapes, as that's not what concept art should be about, so experimenting with particular brush that turned out to have 'snowy' effect, and simply drawing quick strokes to suggest direction of canals. Outcomes later reminding me of real-life locations - e.g. Venice canals [suggestion that Calvino is referring to Venice in many of his woman-named cities] and loading bays to log flume rides [e.g. Splash Mountain, Magic Kingdom, Florida]

Links - Venice canal, Splash Mountain loading bay [Magic Kingdom, Florida]

Fedora [21-22] - Not exactly city description but instead fascination with abandoned concepts and missed opportunities. Going more energetic with chalk-like brushstrokes to draw projected castle-like cities in clean glass globes sitting on columns [e.g. Enchanted Rose in Beauty & the Beast], but contrasting with seeping dark smoke and rubble [larger, softer strokes]. No. 22 reveals surrounding atmosphere in brightly coloured exhibition room, with hole outside revealing entire rubble city, as if destroyed by bomb attack.


Links - Concept Art, Beauty & the Beast [1991, Walt Disney], Aleppo [Syria]

Thursday, 24 September 2015

Invisible Cities: Thumbnails 7-12

Recently took advice from tutor: not to take pencil sketches already as clear and detailed final designs, but concept art which can be finalised later in process. In addition, to be more energetic with sketching to get down ideas in a quick and excited way, and not to take Calvino's texts literally but adapt from his loosely detailed descriptions of the cities:

Armilla [7-8] - Ongoing exploration of "forest of pipes", his description reminding me of public art work in Turbine Hall of Tate Modern: Carsten Holler's Tube Slides, creating new village of pipes from different platforms (perhaps I can evolve from that idea). Gradually realising need to improve on perspective awareness and not make original concept seem flat and two-dimensional like it's set design for platform video game.

Baucis [9-10] - Exploring exciting concept of raised town above wilderness forest, although essentially would sound something like simply rainforest canopy, really wanted to exaggerate proportions and play with interaction between rising stilts and forest below - lampposts, cyclists, birdhouses, etc.

Despina [11-12] - Really excited in sketching, to my perspective, cruise-ship inspired harbour city, as passenger and his camel are amazed by structures popping up high all around them - ship components such as funnels, waving flags and wooden boardwalks. Inspiration from Cardiff waterfront [collection of varying shapes and colours from different time periods], as well as Disney Cruise Line - intertwining traditional ship structure with colourful recreation facilities [huge contrast between multicolour and plain seawater].
Links - Carsten Holler's Test Site [2006, Tate Modern, London], rainforest canopy bridge, Disney Cruise Line [Fleet: 1998-2012]

Wednesday, 23 September 2015

Space Oddities: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)

Robert Wiene’s The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), whilst essentially seen as a silent horror film made in the inter-war years, can be called a piece of artwork from the German Expressionist movement, which quickly rose from the country’s defeat in World War I. The film’s outrageous and horrific production design seems to stand out the most, featuring jagged shapes, leaning buildings, distorted perspective and thick divisions between light and dark, as if the production designers took the black-and-white filmstrip to its greatest advantage (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 
On first sight, it can be said that silent films as a whole, in comparison with the later talkies, focussed significantly more on visual literacy, especially with production design; some may even argue that the invention of sound destroyed beautiful visual storytelling. Both writer Carol King and film school tutor Dominic Power put forward that “motion pictures both created and fed an appetite for spectacle, offering the possibility of recreating the past, reimagining the present and visualising the future (Kemp, 2011:19), whilst film director Martin Scorsese recites director King Vidor’s words that the cinema “is an illusion, more powerful than any other [medium] (A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies, Pt. 2, 1995)”.
When making comparisons with George Melies’ A Trip to the Moon (1902), focusing on ideas popular during the turn of the new century such as decorated ornamentation, Imperialism, progressivism and the voyage of discovery, Caligari immediately explores the impacts of the Great War, replacing optimism with social uncertainty, moral doubt and growing paranoia, reflected into the film’s stripped back and juxtaposed production design. “[Caligari] created a world where the futuristic sets became actors – they visually created a realm so terrifying that audiences felt its dark and looming presence long after the film was over. (Whitlock, 2010:53)”. This could therefore argue that not all filmmaking should be made purely for fantasy or escapism, but to challenge the public’s perception and force them to ask questions.
 Melies' A Trip to the Moon (1902) [Fig. 2]
Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) [Fig. 3]
Art historian Stephen Little defines Expressionism as “the art of unrest and the search for truth (Little, 2004:104), and that the movement is “characterised by emotional extremes which can be traced back to the works of [Vincent] Van Gogh [and] Edvard Munch (Little, 2004:104).” Expressionist painters such as Max Beckmann, Wassily Kandinsky and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner “used strong colour, distorted figures, and sometimes abstraction to explore themes of belonging and alienation (Little, 2004:104). Indeed, the story of Caligari greatly focuses on themes such as paranoia, questioning one’s identity and fear of death, for example, the sleepwalker’s prophecy of a strictly limited life. The film’s twist ending could perhaps extend these themes even further, showcasing a somewhat ‘circle of life’ as the character is revealed to be the (next) sleepwalker.

 Kandinsky's Improvisation 28 (second version) (1912, oil on canvas) [Fig. 4]
Kirchner's Artillerymen (1915, oil on canvas) [Fig. 5]
It can be highlighted that Caligari’s cinematography resembles little different than to simply ‘theatre-on-screen’, as if the viewer would be standing in front of these characters, though it could be argued that this was a result of technological limitations of the time. Critic Kim Newman states that “the film relies entirely on theatrical devices, the camera fixed centre stage as the sets are displayed and the actors providing any movement or impact (Schneider, 2011:31), which could probably explain the bright and exaggerated costume and makeup (see Fig. 6). A film like Caligari could therefore contribute to the argument ‘Why make a film in an environment you can easily recreate on stage?’
Fig. 6 
Journalist Cathy Whitlock puts forward the long-term impacts of Caligari beyond the culture of Weimar Germany, such as the growth of horror and film noir in Hollywood in the 1930s-40s (e.g., James Whale’s Frankenstein (1931)), and the impact on today’s filmmakers such as Tim Burton (e.g. Edward Scissorhands (1990)): “Filmmakers and art directors would turn to German Expressionism throughout the century to convey some of the most frightening, dark and shadowy moments seen on film (Whitlock, 2010:55).
In conclusion, Caligari could be seen as one of the few instances where film fully embraces the radical art movements that impact on general society at that time, especially true when observing film industries outside of America, like Germany’s, who would have wanted to take different directions than to Hollywood’s money-making interests: “The twenties… marked the birth of the [Hollywood] studio system as an “entertainment factory” – films were literally manufactured as products on an assembly line (Whitlock, 2010:41)”.

  • KEMP, P. (general editor) (2011) Cinema: The Whole Story. London: Thames & Hudson
  • LITTLE, S. (2004) Isms: Understanding Art. London: Herbert Press
  • PARKINSON, D. (2012) 100 Ideas That Changed Film. London: Laurence King
  • SCHNEIDER, S. (general editor) (2011) 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. London: Octopus
  • WHITLOCK, C. (2010) Designs on Film: A Century of Hollywood Art Direction. New York: Harper-Collins
Illustration List:
  • A Trip to the Moon (1902) From: A Trip to the Moon. Directed by Melies, G. [Film still] France: Star Film. At: http://www.hitfix.com/blogs/in-contention/posts/martin-scorseses-hugo-and-technicolor-restore-the-magic-of-m-li-s (Accessed 23/9)
  • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) From: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Directed by: Wiene, R. [Film still] Germany: Babelsberg. At: http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/3156247/horror-education-of-the-week-the-cabinet-of-dr-caligari/ (Accessed 23/9)
  • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) From: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Directed by: Wiene, R. [Film still] Germany: Babelsberg. At: https://drafthouse.com/movies/the-cabinet-of-dr.-caligari/san_antonio (Accessed 23/9)
  • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) [Poster] At: http://www.openculture.com/2013/10/the-cabinet-of-dr-caligari-see-the-restored-version.html (Accessed 23/9)
  • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) From: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Directed by: Wiene, R. [Film still] Germany: Babelsberg. At: http://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/oct/22/cabinet-caligari-wiene-horror (Accessed 23/9)
  • Kandinsky, W. (1912) Improvisation 28 (second version) At: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artwork/1861 (Accessed 23/9)
  • Kirchner, E. (1915) Artillerymen [Oil on canvas] At: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artwork/2104 (Accessed 23/9)

Tuesday, 22 September 2015

Profiles - Adobe Photoshop & Wacom

Adobe Photoshop [CC 2015]:

Developer – Adobe, San Jose
Initial release – 1990
Operating systems – Windows, Mac OS X
Type – Raster graphics editor
License – Shareware and software as a service
Website – www.adobe.com/photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe for Windows and OS X. The software has become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, such that the word "photoshop" has become a verb as in "to photoshop an image," "photoshopping," and "photoshop contest," etc. It can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing and several colour models including RGB, CMYK, Lab colour space, spot colour and duotone. Photoshop has vast support for graphic file formats but also uses its own PSD and PSB file formats which support all the above-mentioned features. In addition to raster graphics, it has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics (especially through clipping path), 3D graphics and video.

Adobe Systems:

Spanish – “Mud brick”
Industry – Computer software
Headquarters – San Jose, California
Stock exchange – NASDAQ, New York
Founders – John Warnock & Charles Geschke
Website – www.adobe.com

Adobe Systems is an American multinational computer software company. Adobe has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internet application software development. It is best known for Photoshop, the Portable Document Format (PDF) and Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud.
Adobe was founded in 1982 by Warnock and Geschke, who founded the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution.

Japanese – “Harmony circle”
Industry – Computer input devices and software
Stock exchange – Tokyo
Founded – 1983
Headquarters – Tokyo, Japan
Website – www.wacom.com
Wacom is a Japanese company that specializes in graphics tablets and related products. Wacom tablets are notable for their use of a patented cordless, battery-free, and pressure-sensitive stylus or digital pen. In addition to manufacturing and selling tablets, Wacom also provides graphical input technology for some tablet computers, which it calls "Penabled Technology".


Perspective Drawing Exercises

Took quite some time to discover how to construct 3D shapes with angles properly - constructing certain faces with viewpoints themselves. Received help from Thomas Smith's blog (www.peachflandango.blogspot.co.uk) on perspective drawings.

Sunday, 20 September 2015

Invisible Cities: Thumbnails 1-6

Sketching quick thumbnails to adapt Calvino's Invisible Cities [1972] onto sketchbook pages:

Anastasia [1-3] - I thought main idea behind description was expressing and exaggerating beauty, but reminding the visitor where his place is in this land - "you believe you are enjoying Anastasia wholly when you are only its slave." Reminding me of artists and concepts such as Hundertwasser, Berlin's Potsdamer Platz, Cardiff's redeveloped waterfront, Canary Wharf, Heathrow Airport and other architecture places primarily to serve businesspeople (not to mention Don Bluth's Anastasia) - so became interested in conflicting business with pleasure, exaggerated entertainment (stadium screens, swimming pools, clock tower decorations, etc.), colliding with small boarded airport walkways (currency signs) - "You are nothing!"

Argia [4-5] - Exploring concept of piling up dirt-debris entirely throughout city. Covering windows and doors, overgrowing grass and plants, tight chutes that people try to walk/squeeze through. Debris pile so massive that some have to slide down dug chutes (surrounded by seagulls) to get to city centre

Armilla [6] - Exploring idea of entire structures supported by just pipes (various sizes and directions) - in a way, designed to look slightly dangerous to run at fast pace (fear of falling from large pipes with no handle support)


Links - Hundertwasser, Sony Center [Potsdamer Platz, Berlin], Canary Wharf [Tower Hamlets, London], Mermaid Quay [Cardiff waterfront], seagulls at the dump, pipes screensaver

Tuesday, 8 September 2015

CAA Summer Project 2015: Aardvark-Snake

Aardvark-Snake - Original thumbnail sketch

Aardvark-Snake - Side

Aardvark-Snake - Front
Aardvark-Snake - Side
Aardvark-Snake - Back

Aardvark-Snake - Concept Art

Google Image Search - "Snake" and "Aardvark"

I chose the Aardvark-Snake because of the interesting cramped-like posture that I modelled from the silhouette of the stiletto - the stiletto's heel also suggested the shape of the snout. I was also eager to develop from the creature's slimy and scaly textures, and I really wanted to challenge myself in being able to recreate this posture in all four angles. Indeed, I had some difficulty forming the creature's posture seen at different angles, so I used modelling clay to fashion a model of the posture to be viewed in all angles.
The interesting floor plan of the creature and the design of the snout inspired me to draw concept art reflecting my detailed turnaround. Overall, I am really happy with the final of all three turnarounds.